First and foremost I should emphasise that line breeding is the cornerstone of selective breeding. Selective breeding has given us cows that give the maximum amount of milk, sheep that give the maximum amount of wool, chickens that lay eggs almost every day and the most beautiful dogs in the world. There is nothing wrong with line breeding but it is like using a satellite navigation device — if it is not used intelligently you land up in Richmond, North Yorkshire when you intended to go to Richmond in London!Source system name c2c
If you are to use line breeding intelligently you have to know the basics. I hope that this short article will help. In genetic terminology, inbreeding is the mating of two animals who are related to each other.
In its opposite, out crossing, the two parents are totally unrelated.
Since all pure breeds of animal including humans trace back to a relatively limited number of foundation ancestors, all pure breeding is, by this definition, inbreeding though the term is not generally used to refer to matings where a common ancestor does not occur within a five-generation pedigree. Inbreeding at its closest applies to what would be considered incest in human beings — parent to offspring or a mating between full siblings. However, uncle-niece, aunt-nephew, half sibling matings, and first cousin matings are called inbreeding by some people and line breeding by others.
But three things need to be taken into account. The closer this relationship is to the first generation of the pedigree, the more often it occurs and the relationships of the other sires and dams in the pedigree all result in an increased percentage.
What does inbreeding in the genetic sense do? Basically, it increases the probability that the two copies of any given gene will be identical and derived from the same ancestor. The higher the inbreeding coefficient the more likely this is to happen. Remember that each animal or plant, for that matter has two copies of any given gene two alleles at each locus, if you want to get technicalone derived from the father and one from the mother.
If the father and mother are related, there is a chance that the two genes in the offspring are both identical copies contributed by the common ancestor. Carriers have normal vision, but statistically, if one is mated to another carrier it is likely that one in four of the puppies will have PRA and go blind.
Inbreeding will increase both the number of affected dogs 1 in 4 and the number of genetically normal dogs 3 in 4 so inbreeding can thus bring these undesirable recessive genes to the surface, where they could be removed from the breeding pool — you do not breed from the dogs which go blind — although a proportion of other dogs in the litter will be carriers.
This will only matter if they are mated to another carrier, of course, but it demonstrates the complexity of the problems. Unfortunately, it is still much more complicated for we cannot breed animals based on a single gene — the genes come as just two packages: one in the sperm and one in the egg. So you may be able to eliminate one undesirable pair but the very fact that the animals will be becoming increasingly homozygous which may quickly improve some characteristics is also likely to bring other undesirable combinations to the surface.
This is related to the probability that both copies of any given gene are derived from the same ancestor. A total outcross in dogs, probably a first-generation cross between two purebreds of different, unrelated breeds would be the best approximation would have an inbreeding coefficient of 0. A cousin-to-cousin mating actually gives a relatively low percentage 6. As a general rule, very close inbreeding in domestic animals cannot be maintained for many generations because it generally results in loss of fertility — apart from any other genetic disease which may become apparent.
To ensure genetic health breeders need to select pairs in such a way that the inbreeding coefficient of the offspring is kept as low as possible commensurate with the adherence of stock to the breed standard.
What Happens When Dogs From the Same Litter Mate?
Another key is to constantly move away from families known for possessing deleterious genes — a method practiced by knowledgeable dog breeders for generations. You can download a programme from the Internet called GENEs which was written by Dr Robert Lacy which will enable you to calculate the inbreeding coefficient of any mating assuming you have the full five generation pedigree quite easily. The programme is free but has some restrictions. Genetics is an immensely complex subject and this is but a simplistic introduction.
I would need much more information before I could comment. Dachshunds have a relatively broad genetic base so you should not find yourself in the position of mating so closely under normal circumstances. What is the breed? Are the dogs sound and healthy?
Are they listed on Breed Watch?This generally puts them at about 8 weeks of age. That waiting until 6 months is old-school thinking. If your vet won't spay them, then he isn't up on the latest veterinary research, and I'd have to wonder what else he hasn't kept up to date on.Dac for ipod
The risk of passing bad things on to their kittens is magnified when they are present in both the mom and the dad, and they often would be present in both when the cats are littermates.
You can't see bad genes, and I doubt you know the health histories of their parents and grandparents, so it's best to not allow them to breed as you are risking the health of the kittens. Your kitten also is at a serious health risk if she's allowed to have kittens herself at a young age. She should be fueling her own growth and development, not a litter of kittens. The likelyhood of something going wrong during delivery is much increased in a young kitten, and often a c-section delivery is required.
If that isn't enough to convince anyone to spay their cat, I don't know what will. There are serious risks for a female that young, period.
Dogs and Cats From the Same Litter Can and Will Mate
Young mothers generally aren't good ones, with a high proportion of them dying in birth, producing weak, sickly kittens, or kitten dying at birth. The odds are increased with kitten problems when siblings mate, frequently producing diseased, weak, and kittens that will suffer health and mental problems later in life.
Any recessive, unwanted trait will likely come to the fore when siblings mate, just like humans. Doesn't always happen, but the risks are incredibly high.
So, no, it really isn't a myth about siblings mating. Not all are problematic, but the odds are not in the kitten's -- or mama's -- favor. A male can be neutered before a female, generally 10 minutes after their testicles drop, so you can always get the male neutered first.
I've had females neutered as young as 4 months, so do check with your vet about how soon you can get your cats neutered. It is more the weight of the animal than the age that determines suitability for the operation. Backyard breeders do, but not those who have a reputation or produce show cats.
You are getting the different answers because there is no solid "yes" or "no" to this. There is a chance that the kittens could come out perfectly fine, and there's a chance the kittens could come out deformed in some way. You could get a litter with all normal kittens, or all deformed kittens or you could get a litter with a mixture. You could also call around to other vets if you live in an area that has more than one because you may find one that will do it now too.
Definitely continue what you are doing in keeping them apart as much as possible until you can get them both fixed. If there aren't any serious genetic defects or lethal recessives in the cats, any offspring will be normal. Breeders often mate siblings or fathers back to daughters to fix a specific trait in a line.We went to working farm, they called it line breeding-half brother to half sister.
But i thought that was inbreeding? Where do you draw the line? It was actually at a Exclusive school with there own farm animals, he was talking about mating his sheep he had breed and his breeding plan was to mate the half brother and half sister, and both have the same mother.Psb hoae scores
I thought i get more answers if i put a generalised question in the dog section. That is not line-breeding, it is in-breeding and yes it is too close. Furthermore if you were in the UK, it would no longer be possible to register puppies from such a mating with the Kennel Club.
As the Aus Kennel Club is usually up there with ethical breeding now too, hopefully they will follow suit soon, if they have not already done so.Phenibut hero
Line-breeding, closest should be Uncle to Niece, or Aunty to Nephew, G-parents to G-kids is OK of you thoroughly know the lines, and all dogs have genetic testing in advance, and if the gene pool is so small that you cannot go out further. Close breeding should only be undertaken in exceptional cicurmstances by those most knowledgable, and the resulting offspring should then be bred "out" to a more open line. There are different types of breeding - broadly, they would be outcrossing, linebreeding and inbreeding.
Outcrossing - you are breeding two dogs that have no common ancestors usually at least within 5 generation pedigree. This is usually the method employed by backyard breeders with no goal in mind for the breed.What Happens When You Inbreed?
It is also employed, though, by good breeders who are trying to breed OUT a specific trait. Inbreeding - the breeding of close relatives separated by one or no generations that would be mother to son, brother to sister, etc.
This is a dicey method, which should ONLY be used when there is a concrete reason for needing to, to concentrate outstanding qualities which would be difficult to achieve through linebreeding.
Is line breeding Half brother to half sister too close?
Usually, the KC won't register an inbred litter. They will register it ONLY if they and the breed club agreed prior to mating that it was in the best interests of the breed. Unfortunately, inbreeding often occurs when selfish backyard breeders just happen to have close relatives and see it as an easy money spinner. Inbreeding is not for people who don't know what they're doing. Linebreeding - This is a very commonly employed method, and - when done correctly -ensures that the qualities of one outstanding ancestor are passed down generation after generation.
It is probably the best method of breeding in desirable traits and sometimes eliminating undesirable ones. Line breeding is entirely acceptable if the people employing the method have a good knowledge of genetics, know the line inside out, and are breeding for a purpose. Inbreeding of this sort, as I said, is a little more dicey, and I'd suspect that in the case of the farm, not for any good purpose.For breeders, it is a useful way of fixing traits in a breed—the pedigrees of some exhibition dogs show that many of their forebears are closely related.
For example, there is a famous cat by the name of Fan Tee Cee shown in the s and s who has appeared in more and more Siamese pedigrees, sometimes several times in a single pedigree, as breeders were anxious to make their lines more typey.
Superb specimens are always much sought-after for stud services or offspring unless they have already been neutered! However, inbreeding holds potential problems.
The limited gene pool caused by continued inbreeding means that deleterious genes become widespread and the breed loses vigor. Laboratory animal suppliers depend on this to create uniform strains of animal which are immuno-depressed or breed true for a particular disorder, e.
Such animals are so inbred as to be genetically identical clones! Similarly, a controlled amount of inbreeding can be used to fix desirable traits in farm livestock, e. This is not to say that inbreeding does not occur naturally. A wolf pack, which is isolated from other wolf packs, by geographical or other factors, can become very inbred. The effect of any deleterious genes becomes noticeable in later generations as the majority of the offspring inherit these genes.
Scientists have discovered that wolves, even if living in different areas, are genetically very similar. Possibly the desolation of their natural habitat has drastically reduced wolf numbers in the past, creating a genetic bottleneck. In the wolf, the lack of genetic diversity makes them susceptible to disease since they lack the ability to resist certain viruses.
Extreme inbreeding affects their reproductive success with small litter sizes and high mortality rates. Some scientists hope that they can develop a more varied gene pool by introducing wolves from other areas into the inbred wolf packs. Another animal suffering from the effects of inbreeding is the giant panda. As with the wolf, this has led to poor fertility among pandas and high infant mortality rates. As panda populations become more isolated from one another due to humans blocking the routes which pandas once used to move from one area to anotherpandas have greater difficulty in finding a mate with a different mix of genes and breed less successfully.
In cats natural isolation and inbreeding have given rise to domestic breeds such as the Manx which developed on an island so that the gene for taillessness became widespread despite the problems associated with it. Apart from the odd cat jumping ship on the Isle of Man, there was little outcrossing and the effect of inbreeding is reflected in smaller-than-average litter sizes geneticists believe that more Manx kittens than previously thought are reabsorbed due to genetic abnormalitystillbirths and spinal abnormalities which diligent breeders have worked so hard to eliminate.
Some feral colonies become highly inbred due to being isolated from other cats e. Most cat workers dealing with ferals have encountered some of the effects of inbreeding. Within such colonies there may be a higher than average occurrence of certain traits.
Some are not serious, e. Other inherited traits which can be found in greater than average numbers in inbred colonies include polydactyly the most extreme case reported so far being an American cat with nine toes on each footdwarfism although dwarf female cats can have problems when trying to deliver kittens due to the kittens' head sizeother structural deformities or a predisposition to certain inheritable conditions.
The ultimate result of continued inbreeding is terminal lack of vigor and probable extinction as the gene pool contracts, fertility decreases, abnormalities increase and mortality rates rise. Artificial isolation selective breeding produces a similar effect. When creating a new breed from an attractive mutation, the gene pool is initially necessarily small with frequent matings between related dogs.
Some breeds which resulted from spontaneous mutation have been fraught with problems such as the Bulldog. Problems such as hip dysplasia and achalasia in the German Shepherd and patella luxation are more common in certain breeds and breeding lines than in others, suggesting that past inbreeding has distributed the faulty genes. Selecting suitable outcrosses can reintroduce healthy genes, which might otherwise be lost, without adversely affecting type. Zoos engaged in captive breeding programs are aware of this need to outcross their own stock to animals from other collections.
Captive populations are at risk from inbreeding since relatively few mates are available to the animals, hence zoos must borrow animals from each other in order to maintain the genetic diversity of offspring. Inbreeding holds problems for anyone involved in animal husbandry—from canary fanciers to farmers. Attempts to change the appearance of the Pug in attempts to have a flatter face and a rounder head resulted in more C-sections being required and other congenital problems.
Some of these breeds are losing their natural ability to give birth without human assistance.Dogs and cats don't grow up with social restraints that discourage copulation between siblings, so when they reach puberty, littermates can and do spontaneously mate.
Some animal breeders purposefully pair brothers and sisters to maintain bloodlines and develop desired pedigree-associated characteristics. Conversely, inbreeding can also lead to birth defects, an increased likelihood of genetic diseases, and chronic health problems.
When a female goes into heat also known as the estrus cyclemales simply follow their instinct to pass on their genes without any concern for the genetic ramifications. Littermates living in the same home naturally respond when the time is right.
The estrus cycle varies in dogs and cats. The age of animal puberty varies. It can sneak up on you, resulting in an unplanned pregnancy and the shock of an additional five to 10 puppies or kittens in your care. Generally speaking, dogs and cats enter puberty at around six months of age, but it can happen for some at four months old. Dogs go into heat on average twice per year; though some may cycle more or less frequently. Cats, on the other hand, cycle into heat about every few weeks during a breeding season that generally occurs between January and October.
A cat in heat may suddenly become vocal or start exhibiting excessive affection. An indoor cat who wants to get outside can also indicate a heat cycle, while the estrus posture of butt in the air with tail tilted to one side may be the most telling sign.
Female dogs may urinate excessively, lick their genitals and seem clingy and agitated. Bloody discharge and a swollen vulva also occur with a dog in heat. Signs of heat can also be signs of a problem, such as a urinary tract infection, so see your vet whenever you feel uncertain of the cause of a particular behavior. Statistically, most dogs could safely produce two litters per year but a cat could feasibly give birth four times.
This would not, however, be good for your pet's health or longevity, and could result in overpopulation and the death of unwanted animals. The onset of the first heat cycle, when a female can become pregnant, follows the same time frame as puberty 4 to 6 months for cats and small dogs, though it may be delayed until 18 to 24 months in larger breeds of dogs.
Animals can get creative when there is a female in heat. Keeping males away when pets live in the same household may prove difficult or even impossible. Consider shaving your pet spayed or neutered to avoid contributing to the huge problem of pet overpopulation. If you suspect your pet is sick, call your vet immediately. For health-related questions, always consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet's health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet.Well, you can for sure.
I mean, it's not like they care that they are siblings. My uncle is a farmer who has a bunch of cats that just kinda live in the barn and garage.125khz rfid reader circuit
However, he's never bought anymore cats other than the original two that he had. So over the last years the cats have continuously mated with their siblings. Over the generations cats with deformities are starting to develop.
So, if it's a first generation thing, I doubt there would be any problem at all. Over time though, if they continue to breed for a number of years, there will eventually be deformities. But who would continually breed siblings? And of you HAVE to ask, please, please do not breed yet.
Keep asking questions. Breeding two closely related dogs means that whatever genetic strengths or weaknesses they have will be more prevalent in the puppies. Good breeders as a rule will not breed two full siblings.
There are breeders who carefully look at all the variables and then deliberately breed related dogs with a specific goal in mind. Then there are people who put a couple of dogs together to have puppies. There is a big difference. Hi I'll try to make this simple. Breeding siblings will generally bring out the best genetic traits, and the worst genetic traits in the offspring.
This type of breeding should only be attempted by experienced breeders who have done much research, and all available testing, to ensure the best outcome. These breeders are very selective in their lines, and only do this to better the breed.
Inbreeding creates weaker genes and ultimately causes life problems for the animals, sorry.All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Cats Felines.Sudheer remuneration for dhee
Wiki User This is true the polydactyl cats parents would most likely have been brother and sister. They are the same thing. Polydactyl cats have extra toes due to inbreeding somewhere along in the family history. Asked in Cat Health Why does your kitten have six toes on front paws? Your kitten is the result of inbreeding. She is most likely a Polydactyl. Polydactyl means having more than the usual number of fingers or toes.
Most Cats have 5 digits on each paw. A polydactyl has extra digits, usually 6. Cats are not the only animal to be considered polydactyl. In fact people may also have more than 10 fingers or toes! Polydactyl is a genetic abnormality that is sometimes seen in cats as well as other species. Polydactyl cats are not bred to have the extra digits, and there is no true percentage of this occurrence. The only exception is the Maine Coon which disreputable breeders will attempt breeding.
Calico Polydactyl Manx cats are relatively common, though there are no exact statistics on the number of cats in the United States. The cats are often sold for high prices. Asked in Conditions and Diseases Are polydactyl cats worth money? Asked in Cat Health Is it bad when your kittens have extra toes? Kittens can be polydactyl. Polydactyl means an extra toe.
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